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In the knowledge stage of cognitive domain, the focus is on memory. For students to be successful, they should be able to recall what they have been taught. Knowledge must be mastered before they can move on to comprehension. Specific behavior, actions, and examples that accompany the knowledge stage that demonstrate mastery.
The behavior of the knowledge stage is based on recognizing and recalling data. The students who exhibit knowledge when they recite definitions, know rules, and recognize processes, for example. In the work place, recalling pertinent information, such as prices, is knowledge-based behavior. Knowledge is learned through different actions that accompany behavior.
Certain actions will help indicate students understand and implement the knowledge stage. Students who show the following actions are demonstrating mastery of the knowledge stage.
- Search online
- Take multiple choice test
- Use study aides
The list above is not comprehensive, but it is appropriate for students of all ages, including adult learners. These actions should align with the example words that are used to determine learning outcomes. Familiarity with example words will help expand your understanding of the knowledge stage of the cognitive domain.
Keywords are used to define learning outcomes. These examples words are active verbs that teachers use in their objectives and goals for the class. These example words help educators assess performance and determine what level of mastery students have reached. The different domains work together, so you will see overlap in examples between them.
Commonly used keywords for the knowledge stage of the cognitive domain include:
Outcomes begin with action verbs that help define performance measurements.
When implementing the learning objectives at the knowledge phase of the cognitive domain, the goal is to design activities that help students demonstrate the learning objectives created. In adult learners, this requires providing accurate resources and direction such as books, aides, and lecture. This stage includes facts, concepts, principles, and procedures that are relevant to the subject taught. Be practical in the instruction, and do not overwhelm them with too much information at one time. Pace instruction because overwhelmed students will not be able to retain the knowledge.
For more on our Adult Learning – Mental Skills course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Adult_Learning_-_Mental_Skills
Logical thinking is a process which involves steps. In general logical thinking involves checking the components of the argument and making connections between them, which is what we call reasoning. The four major steps of logical thinking are 1) asking the right questions, 2) organising data, 3) evaluating the information, and 4) drawing conclusions. In our Critical Thinking course, we will analyse these basic steps (link below).
The first step in logical thinking should begin with asking the right questions. Based on the components of critical thinking, the logical thinker should begin reasoning by asking many questions. An important question to ask is “What are the premises?” If we are confused about the premises, we may make mistakes further down the line in the logic process. We should distinguish between whether the statement is a fact or a value, what should or ought to be the case, and be alert to not confuse the two. Finally, we should check to see if any premises or vital information is missing. A key point to remember is that no conclusions can be made without premises.
For more on our Critical Thinking course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Critical_Thinking
What is Initiative?
Initiative is something we can all use in our careers. It is what sets us apart from others and our competition. Many people are afraid to take the initiative, but if you can, you will stand out. Initiative is deep down inside all of us, but the successful ones are the ones who use it.
It is important to know what initiative is to properly utilize it. Initiative is defined as the ability to assess and initiate things independently. In other words, it is taking advantage of the opportunities in front of you. It is stepping up, and going beyond your typical duties. Take charge of situations before others do. You may not want to step out of your comfort zone, but usually you will be rewarded for doing so. It is thinking outside the box, preparing for success, capitalizing on opportunities. It is making changes to take a step forward and being persistent.
In life, taking initiative offers many benefits. It is a positive step that anyone can take for themselves. Only you can take the initiative for yourself, so ensure you do it. Taking the initiative provides individuals with a sense of self-control both in their personal and professional lives. No one is going to offer you opportunities if you do not deserve them, so stepping up will make all the difference in your life. In your personal life, it may benefit you by helping you feel more confident with yourself. In your professional life, it may help you get that coveted promotion. In either aspect of your life, it will promote better things.
Taking initiative promotes:
Not everyone is comfortable with taking the initiative, or even knows how to do so. It is something that is developed mentally and takes strength to do. Some individuals have a bounded rationality. These individuals are unable to see past what they currently know. They cannot see the benefits of stepping up. Typically, the individual has never thought about it. Also, individuals do not take the initiative due to a lack of capability. Outside their general knowledge, some individuals do not possess the expertise to take the initiative for a more difficult task. Execution over innovation is also another popular reason that individuals do not take initiative. These individuals only focus on their own work, and do not have concern for any new tasks. Finally, some individuals are too busy to take the initiative. There is already too much on their plate, and they physically and mentally cannot process anymore work.
Reasons for not taking the initiative:
- Bounded rationality
- Lack of capability
- Execution over Innovation
- Task overload
It is our duty to make initiative a priority in both our professional and personal lives. To make initiative a priority, we must first understand what it is and what its benefits are. Once we understand this, we can take the leap forward. To make taking initiative a priority, we must watch for opportunities. We must be aware of our surroundings, and what can potentially be a fantastic opportunity to do so. In your professional career, if you see that your boss needs help with something, offer it! Show that you are a go-getter. Take the extra step when you can! People will take notice of your initiative, and you will be rewarded positively.
For more our Taking the Initiative course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Taking_Initiative
We usually end up avoiding the pushy salesperson. The one that follows you around the store, asking a million questions. There are many traits in a sales representative that we all avoid. Being that salesperson that a customer wants to see and to talk to takes a little bit of practice. But with these traits, you will become that salesperson, it will eventually lead to the customer making a purchase, and beginning a positive, long lasting relationship with you.
There is a fine line between being assertive and being aggressive. Being pushy and overly aggressive can not only offend but also scare away perspective customers. On the other hand, being assertive, and in tune with the customer’s needs, you can draw in customers.
Before you begin the sale, know the objections/concerns the customer may have and be prepared to respond. Give all of the supporting data when delivering the sales pitch. Always be calm, positive, and honest about the product/service. This will convey the message that you are an authority in the field.
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to identify and control one’s emotions, and to recognize and manage others’ emotions. In short, being aware of one’s emotions and being able to control them, along with having empathy for others, are both signs of emotional intelligence. People with high emotional intelligence are usually better team players, better problem solvers, and overall better “people” persons.
Those with high emotional intelligence are very aware of their own emotions. They know their triggers and are capable of controlling their emotions, even in stressful situations. High emotional intelligence also involves a motivation to understand other’s situations and empathize with them. Improving all of these traits is important to developing a high emotional intelligence.
Traits of a high emotional intelligence:
Sales = problem solving. If you want to be valued by your customers, you have to solve their problems. Customers that need solutions to high priority issues are willing to pay for those solutions. But first, you must identify the customer’s problem. What are they missing or needing? Then you must analyze that problem. What causes the problem? What could solve the problem? You then need to formulate several options to remedy the situation for the customer. Which products/services will solve this problem? And lastly, assist the customer in choosing the option that best suits their needs.
The hardest thing to learn as a sales person is to close the deal, make the sale; no matter how you word it, there are many techniques to getting your customer to put their name on the dotted line. After you have presented all of the facts, and the customer wants the product, you may still need to gently push your customer to actually committing to the sale.
One of the techniques used is the assumptive technique. You assume the sale is completed and you say something like, “So you would like your delivery date to be next week?” Another technique is the bonus. Hold back a low cost, high value bonus to purchasing. Use this bonus to sway your customer into the purchase. Another way to close the deal painlessly is to put a deadline on the deal. This works well when offering sale prices. “This sale is about to expire, so I assume you want to take advantage of this pricing now?” would be a good example of this technique.
For more on our Top 10 Sales Secrets course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Top_10_Sales_Secrets
Records are in every organization. From purchasing reciepts to tax documents to communications, they need to be identitied and managed properly. The method of records management that a company uses should be tailored to fit the needs of the organization. There are, however, some basic concepts in most records management systems.
Records management systems will create uniformity and understanding. Regardless of how the records management system is organized, the management will affect the way that data is collected, stored and accessed.
Aspects of Records Management
- Establish a company filing system that is uniform
- Determine the storage of physical, confidential records
- Develop programs for consistent management of records
- Create archives and resource libraries
Over the course of this instruction, you will develop a better understanding of these aspects and how they connect in records management.
All records are documents, but not all documents are records. A document can be a contract, email, business negotiation, etc. If it relates to the legal obligations, evidence, or business transactions, the document becomes part of the legal record. When identifying a record, it is necessary to consider the purpose of the document.
- Is it personal, or business?
- Does it relate to a transaction?
- Does it reflect any company action or activity?
- Does it have legal implications?
Once a document has been identified as a record, it must be carefully maintained for future use.
Records can become part of archives. Archives are records that are no longer current but are preserved past average records. Records are kept for varying lengths of time, depending on what they are. Once documents pass the necessary time for storage, they are disposed, or they are placed in archives. Archives typically have a historical, political, or legal reasons. They have value for the long-term. For example, documents that provide legal protections might be archived along with the founding documents of an organization. When choosing to dispose of documents in records or keeping them, remember that only a few of the documents will be archived. Archives may be stored on site, although some institutions will keep them offsite. Larger organizations with multiple locations are more likely to use offsite archives.
There are differing definitions for document life cycles, which have become even more complicated with the introduction of electronic records. In this text, there is a blend of the classic cycle and the life history.
The Life of Records:
- Documents are created or received. Records are identified.
- Identified documents are captured for record-keeping. The captured files follow the necessary business practices and are current.
- Record management occurs. The records are stored, used, or maintained. The records may be current or not current. Records that are no longer considered current may become current again in events such as audits.
- Records are assessed and action taken. The records are identified as in use, necessary to maintain, necessary to dispose of, or necessary to archive.
For more on our Archiving and Records Management course, please visit our website: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Archiving_and_Records_Management
Before developing and implementing security measures to prevent cyberattacks, you must understand basic concepts associated with cybersecurity and what cyberattacks are. The method(s) of cybersecurity that a company uses should be tailored to fit the needs of the organization.
Cyberspace is the environment where computer transactions take place. This specifically refers to computer-to-computer activity. Although there is no “physical” space that makes up cyberspace, with the stroke of a few keys on a keyboard, one can connect with others around the world.
Examples of items included in cyberspace are:
- Information storage
As previously mentioned, cybersecurity is the implementation of methods to prevent attacks on a company’s information systems. This is done to avoid disruption of the company’s productivity. Not only does cybersecurity include controlling physical access to the system’s hardware, it protects from danger that may come via network access or the injection of code.
Cybersecurity is crucial to a business for a myriad of reasons. The two this section will focus on are data security breaches and sabotage. Both can have dire effects on a company and/or its clients.
Data security breaches can compromise secure information such as:
- Names and social security numbers
- Credit card and bank details
- Trade secrets
- Intellectual property
Computer sabotage serves to disable a company’s computers or network to impede the company’s ability to conduct business.
In simple terms, a hacker is an individual or group of individuals who use their knowledge of technology to break into computer systems and networks, using a variety of tools to gain access to and utilize other people’s data for devious reasons.
There are 3 main types of hackers. They are:
Grey hats: These hackers do so “for the fun of it”.
Black hats: These hackers have malevolent reasons for doing so, such as stealing and/or selling data for monetary gain.
White hats: These hackers are employed by companies to hack into systems to find where the company is vulnerable, with the intention of ensuring the safety of the data from hackers with ill intentions.
For more on our Cyber Security course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Cyber_Security
The Benefits of Budgeting
When going on a road trip, most people have a map which tells them how to get from point A to point B. The map is important, because it tells you how to get to your desired destination. A well developed budget is just like a map to help you reach your financial goals. You start at point A, and the budget helps you go the distance get to point B.
Having a budget can be very beneficial to get the hardship of debt off of your plate. Debt is money that is owed by one person to another person, or company. Many people these days struggle with the burden of debt. The Pew Charitable Trusts reported in 2015 that 80% of Americans were in debt. The median is almost $68,000 for Americans, talk about stressful! Debt can take many different forms, here are just a few:
- Credit Card
- Medical Bills
- Personal Loans
- Car Loan
- Bank Overdraft Charges
- Student Loan
A well-crafted budget could help you create a savings. In this context savings means money that a person has saved, usually through a financial institution, but not always. Having a savings is critical, and often overlooked. You never know when lightning is going to strike, the car is going to break down, or you suddenly need to have an emergency appendectomy. The boy scouts have a motto, always be prepared. We don’t always know what is coming our way in life, but a little foresight and preparedness can help. Saving a small emergency fund could mean the difference between saving the day, or total disaster. Here are a few different types of events you could save for:
- Car Repairs
- Housing Repairs
- Medical Costs
- Unexpected Unemployment
When a person is weighed down by their financial situation, it can cause a lot of stress and anxiety. Stress and anxiety can make it hard to function in life. Feeling the overwhelming pressure can be debilitating for some people. Stress and anxiety can also manifest in the following ways:
- Heart attack
- High Blood pressure
- Gastric Conditions, such as stomach ulcers
- Substance abuse
- Eating disorders, weight loss/ or weight gain
Financial stress and anxiety can be curbed by having a properly developed budget in place. A budget can help you manage your monthly spending. Your budget can even help you get out of debt, if that is one of your goals.
Financial strain can affect more than just your physical health; it can affect your relationships also. When you’re stressed out, that always has a way of leaking into your relationships with your spouse, family, and friends. A major cause of divorce in America is related to financial issues. When financial stress is at the forefront of your mind, it can cause you to be distant, and irritable towards your loved ones. Sometimes we have to borrow money from a loved one, which can add even more tension to an already strained relationship. Not only are you trying to get yourself back to level, financially, but having to figure out how to pay your loved one back.
For more on our Managing Personal Finances Course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Managing_Personal_Finances
What is Servant Leadership?
Servant leadership is a business philosophy that emphasizes the act of the leader, such as a manager or supervisor, focusing on the growth and development of their employees and ensuring their success. In doing so, the leader succeeds when their employees do. In a business team, servant leadership cannot only help employees achieve and grow, but it can also benefit their leaders and the company as a whole.
It is a leader’s responsibility to guide their followers on the right path. But to become a better leader, it’s not enough just to take the wheel and steer – you must also be willing to serve your followers and assist them in their own journey. A servant leader should have a desire to serve their employees, which includes taking the time to identify your employees and how they perform or being beside them as they face challenges. Take the time to assist in their growth and help them work toward achieving their goals. Don’t be afraid to give yourself into their processes and become part of their evolvement.
As a leader, it is a common feeling to absorb the ‘power’ of the position and a have a sense of superiority. A servant leader does not save this power only for themselves because they learn to share it with their team of employees. Employees under a servant leader should feel some of the servant leader’s power and pull, which can make them feel more empowered in their place on the team and in their own abilities. Sharing the power allows employees to feel like their contributions matter and that their input is valued.
Share the power by:
- Asking employee opinions
- Working together on challenges or projects
- Taking a census, when possible
One of the main principles of servant leadership is the act of putting other’s needs ahead of your own. As a leader, we can sometimes think in the ‘ME’ mentality and want to focus on our own agenda and needs. But in servant leadership, the leader must focus on his team of employees first before focusing on themselves. The leader should focus on what the employee needs or wants, how they can achieve this and how it will make them successful in the long run. A leader should strive to develop relationships and even friendships with their employees and deliver feedback when possible. They must be able to set their own ego aside and realize that without their team of employees, no one can be successful.
Once again, as a leader, we can focus on our own goals, responsibilities and even our own challenges. But as a servant leader, the needs of the employee should come first and the main goal should be to help them succeed and grow in the company. A good leader knows that a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, so everyone benefits when every employee is encouraged, mentored and motivated. Sometimes this may mean you’ll have to share in successes as well as failures, but every goal set and worked together is another stepping stone for the employee and helps them work toward their ultimate target.
Help employees grow by:
- Encourage goals
- Give feedback when possible
- Listen to their questions and requests
- Offer help but don’t complete things for them
For more on our Servant Leadership course, please visit:
Every business relationship relies on contracts. Contracts are made with vendors, employees, customers, partnerships, etc. These agreements must be managed carefully, which is where contract management comes into the picture. In order to effectively implement contract management, however, it is necessary to understand what it entails.
Contract management is not just contract administration. Rather than simply drawing up the contracts, the manager works to ensure that the entire process runs smoothly. The contract manager is involved in not just the planning and development but also the execution of the contract, and beyond to the point of renewal. Typical contract management activities include:
- Contract creation
- Relationship management
- Contract amendment
All contracts are legal documents that establish the right and responsibilities of the parties involved. Contracts can be created for almost any situation, and will ideally involve legal. There are four basic contract types, and they are chosen based on the factors and data available. While the list is not exhaustive, it is a good starting point. These common contracts are:
- Fixed Price Contracts: The price of the item or service is usually fixed and will not change, which benefits the buyer. Variations of this contract include firm fixed price, fixed price with adjustment, fixed price with incentive, fixed price with downward price protection, and fixed price with redetermination.
- Cost Reimbursement Contracts: These contracts benefit the seller. The buyer agrees to pay a price, free, or partial fee. Common types of these contracts include cost-sharing and cost without fee.
- Letter Contracts: These contracts allow the suppliers or vendors to take action before the details of the agreement are finalized. The buyer is at risk if liability limits are not clear.
- Partially Defined Contracts: Created when one or more aspects, such as goods, services, and deliveries, are not known ahead of time. These include value contracts, quantity contracts, and time and material contracts.
For more on our Contract Management course, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/Contract_Management
Characteristics of High Performance Teams
There are many different characteristics for high performance teams. We could list different characteristics for days! In this section, we will discuss the four main characteristics of high performance teams. The characteristics are excellent communication, being goal-oriented, flexibility, and being committed.
So, what is communication? Communication means relaying thoughts or ideas to another person. Communication is broken up into three categories: verbal, written, and nonverbal. Every good relationship depends on great communication. Being able to effectively communicate with one another is an important asset on any team. Most problems in a team dynamic are due to poor communication. Most of the time these problems are because of a misunderstanding, where someone didn’t communicate effectively.
Goals are important for everyone, both personally and professionally. Having a goal gives you something to reach for, to improve yourself or your life. A goal is something that a person or persons works to achieve. A goal can be tangible, which is something that they can physically touch, like building a model rocket. You can also have intangible goals, which is something you can’t touch, like learning to speak Chinese. High performance teams are known for being goal-oriented. These teams are laser focused on the task at hand, and work together to achieve their collective goal.
High performance teams are known to be very flexible. They understand the steps they have to take in order to complete their tasks, and will use the most effective route to achieve their goal. This may entail changing the route used to complete the task. Leadership changes often, members of the team will change team leads depending on which member is best qualified. Team member duties can change from project to project.
High performance team members are committed to the team and completing their goals. A committed team member is loyal and dedicated to their team, job, company, and the task at hand. These teams are engaged in their tasks and are committed to obtaining their goals. At the end of the day, they want the best for their company, and team, not unlike a parent wants the best for their child.
For more on High Performance Teams, please visit: https://corporatetrainingmaterials.com/course/High_Performance_Teams_Remote_Workforce